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Affirmation (Skt. viddhi; Tib. སྒྲུབ་པ་; Wyl. sgrub pa) is defined as "realizing through a process of mental positive determination" (བློའི་ཡོངས་གཅོད་དུ་རྟོགས་པར་བྱ་བ་,blo'i yongs gcod du rtogs par bya ba).


It can be divided into;

  1. affirmation of appearances (སྣང་བའི་སྒྲུབ་པ་, snang ba'i sgrub pa), and
  2. affirmation through exclusion (སེལ་བའི་སྒྲུབ་པ་, sel ba'i sgrub pa)


  1. affirmation of identity, and
  2. affirmation of existence

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