Five practices of enlightenment without meditation
The five practices of enlightenment without meditation (Tib. མ་སྒོམ་སངས་རྒྱས་ཆོས་ལྔ་, ma gom sangye chö nga, Wyl. ma sgom sangs rgyas chos lnga) are sometimes given as:
- liberation through seeing (chakras) (Tib. tongdrol, Wyl. mthong grol);
- liberation on hearing (mantras and dharanis) (Tib. tödrol, Wyl. thos grol);
- liberation by tasting (amrita) (Tib. nyongdrol, Wyl. myong grol);
- liberation by touch (mudra) (Tib. takdrol, Wyl. btags grol); and
- liberation by recollection or thinking (which includes the practice of phowa) (Tib. drendrol)
- liberation by touching (Tib. regdrol, Wyl. reg grol) is sometimes added to the list, making six methods that lead to liberation.
- Gayley, Holly. "Soteriology of the Senses in Tibetan Buddhism" in Numen 54 (2007) 459–499
- James Gentry, Liberation through sensory encounters in Tibetan Buddhist practice, Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines, no. 50, 2019.