Four criteria of validity

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The four criteria of validity (Tib. ཚད་མ་བཞི་, tsema shyi, Wyl. tshad ma bzhi ) are:

  1. valid scripture (Tib. ལུང་ཚད་མ་, Wyl. lung tshad ma)
  2. valid commentaries (Tib. བསྟན་བཅོས་ཚད་མ་, Wyl. bstan bcos tshad ma)
  3. valid teachers (Tib. བླ་མ་ཚད་མ་, Wyl. bla ma tshad ma)
  4. valid experience (Tib. ཉམས་མཉོང་ཚད་མ་, Wyl. nyams myong tshad ma)[1]


  1. Note 6 by Adam Pearcey to translation on Lotsawa House of The Sage's Harmonious Song of Truth', 'A Prayer for the Flourishing of the Non-Sectarian Teachings of the Buddha by His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Alternative Translations

  • Four means of validation (Philogia Tibetica)

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