Nine modes of expertise

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Nine modes of expertise (Wyl. mkhas pa’i tshul dgu) —

According to one interpretation, these include:

  • the 'three wisdom tools' of: study, contemplation and meditation (Wyl. thos bsam sgom gsum);
  • the 'three activities of a pandita': exposition, disputation and composition (Wyl. ’chad rtsod rtsom gsum); and
  • knowledgeability, ethical-ascetical integrity and goodness (Wyl. mkhas btsun bzang gsum).”

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