Five practices of enlightenment without meditation
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The five practices of enlightenment without meditation (Tib. མ་སྒོམ་སངས་རྒྱས་ཆོས་ལྔ་, ma gom sangye chö nga, Wyl. ma sgom sangs rgyas chos lnga) are sometimes given as:
- liberation through seeing (chakras) (Tib. tongdrol, Wyl. mthong grol);
- liberation on hearing (mantras and dharanis) (Tib. tödrol, Wyl. thos grol);
- liberation by tasting (amrita) (Tib. nyongdrol, Wyl. myong grol);
- liberation by touch (mudra) (Tib. takdrol, Wyl. btags grol); and
- liberation by recollection or thinking (which includes the practice of phowa) (Tib. drendrol)
- liberation by touching (Tib. regdrol, Wyl. reg grol) is sometimes added to the list, making six methods that lead to liberation.
- Gayley, Holly. "Soteriology of the Senses in Tibetan Buddhism" in Numen 54 (2007) 459–499
- James Gentry, Liberation through sensory encounters in Tibetan Buddhist practice, Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines, no. 50, 2019.