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Geshe (Tib. དགེ་བཤེས་, Wyl. dge bshes) is the Tibetan equivalent of the Sanskrit kalyāṇamitra (Tib. དགེ་བའི་བཤེས་གཉེན་, dge ba'i bshes gnyen), which literally means 'virtuous friend'. In common usage it is a title awarded to scholars in the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism once they graduate. Different grades of geshe degree exist, the highest being Geshe Lharampa.

Further Reading

  • Georges Dreyfus, The Sound of Two Hands Clapping: The Education of a Tibetan Buddhist Monk, University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0520232600
  • Tarab Tulku. A Brief History of Tibetan Academic Degrees in Buddhist Philosophy. Copenhagen, Denmark: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 2000, ISBN 978-8787062855